Agonists, Antagonists, Activators and Inhibitors (AAAI)
Biochemicals which activate or inhibit biological pathways.
A reagent that binds specifically to an antigen – antibodies are a subset of affinity binders.
The basic building blocks of proteins and peptides.
A protein made by the immune system that binds specifically to an antigen. When an antibody detects this antigen in the body, it will contribute to an immune response to rid the body of the antigen.
A molecule that is recognised by the immune system and which can be specifically bound by an antibody.
A laboratory test for assessing the presence, amount or functional activity of a chemical or biological molecule.
A series of molecular interactions that leads to a change in a cell in response to a stimulus. For example, biological pathways can trigger the assembly of new molecules, turn genes on and off, or spur a cell to move.
Any pharmaceutical drug product manufactured in, extracted from, or semi-synthesised from biological sources. Different from totally synthesised pharmaceuticals, they include vaccines, blood, blood components, allergenics, somatic cells, gene therapies, tissues, recombinant therapeutic protein, and living cells used in cell therapy.
A measurable indicator of a biological state or condition. For example, increased amounts of a particular protein in a blood sample may indicate the presence of a particular disease.
Antibodies that are chemically bound to molecules that enable detection of the antibody. For example, an antibody might be bound to a fluorescent dye.
An experimental technique allowing effective and specific editing of genetic sequences.
Deoxyribonucleic acid – a polymeric molecule that comprises both the coding and non-coding elements of the genome of an organism. Coding elements are transcribed into RNA, while non-coding elements exert cellular control functions.
Assay that uses antibodies to detect and quantify proteins and peptides in a biological sample. Acronym for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
The study of changes in organisms caused by modification of gene expression rather than alteration of the genetic code itself.
Acronym for Enterprise Resource Planning. It refers to business process management software that allows an organisation to use a system of integrated applications to manage the business and automate many back-office functions related to technology, services and human resources.
A section of DNA that acts as the blueprint for making a particular protein. Every human being (except identical twins) has a unique set of genes, half of which came from their mother and the other half from their father.
A test that uses the binding of antibodies to antigens to detect and quantify a biological molecule in a sample.
A branch of biology that focuses on immune systems.
The process of selectively imaging antigens (proteins) in cells of a tissue section by exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues
Describes studies that are performed with microorganisms, cells or biological molecules outside their normal biological context. For example, an in vitro experiment might involve extracting a blood sample from a patient and performing an assay on that sample in a test tube.
Describes a biological process that takes place in a living cell or organism, including animals and plants.
In vitro diagnostics (IVD)
Tests done on samples such as blood or tissue that have been taken from the human body. In vitro diagnostics can detect diseases or other conditions, and can be used to monitor a person’s overall health to help cure, treat, or prevent diseases.
Kits and assays
Multi-component products comprising antibodies and other reagents that can be used to detect a wide range of biological molecules.
Knockout cell lines
A cell line that has had a particular gene removed (or ‘knocked out’). The protein that the knocked-out gene encodes for is therefore not produced.
The fluid produced by lysis of cells and tissues. Lysates are used as controls in biological experiments to confirm the absence or presence of proteins of interest.
The disruption of cells by mechanical, chemical or enzymatic means.
A family of proteins with diverse roles in cellular signalling and gene expression.